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URINARY BLADDER CANCER

A human urinary bladder stores the urine and looks like a hollow muscular organ in lower abdomen.
Urinary bladder cancer is one of the common cancer that effects cells in bladder. Most bladder cancer can be diagnosed at early stages, where treatment is much easier. Recurrence has also been seen in few cases post surgery, so one has to on constant follow up for few years after completion of treatment.

SYMPTOMS :

  • Painful and frequent urination is one of major symptoms and signs of bladder cancer
  • Lower back pain
  • Haematuria / Blood or blood clots in urine
  • Not able to pass urine but have an urge to urinate

CAUSES:

It usually happens when abnormal cells grow and spread in urinary bladder and destroys health cells. However, the exact cause is still unknown.

TYPES OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER :

  1. Adenocarcinoma : Though adenocarcinoma is rare, but it begins when grandular cells form in bladder post bladder inflammation and irritation.
  2. Squamous Cells Carcinoma : It is formed when a flat and thin squamous cells form in urinary bladder cancer post long term infection.
  3. Transitional / Urothelial Carcinoma : This type of cancer begins in the inner layer of bladder. These cells expand when bladder is full and contract when empty. This is the most common type of bladder cancer.

RISK FACTORS:

There are multiple risk factors associated :

  • Previous cancer treatment
  • Family history of cancer
  • With increase of age
  • Smoking
  • Exposure to chemicals
  • More prominent in males
  • Consumption of high-fat diet

PREVENTION:

  • One should take adequate caution if he/she is working with chemical industry. Proper safety instructions has to be followed to avoid exposure.
  • One should avoid smoking habit to prevent cancer
  • Consumption of adequate fruits and veggies rich in antioxidants is helpful in prevention and reduce risks of cancer.

DIAGNOSIS:

  • Complete urine analysis
  • CPE ( Cystoscopy ) helps in ruling out urinary bladder cancer
  • CT Urogram is also advised to view the bladder
  • Bladder biopsy is recommended to collect a cell sample for treating bladder cancer
  • PET Scan and Bone scan are also recommended to know the extent of bladder cancer

TREATMENT:

  1. TURBT ( TransUretheral Resection of Bladder Tumor ): TURBT is an ideal procedure to remove cancer confined to inner layers of urinary bladder. Holmium Laser TURBT is being practiced at Diyos Hospital and is the best treatment for urinary bladder cancer in Delhi, NCR.Chemotherapy is also recommended and advised as a part of TURBT procedure in some cases.
  2. Cystectomy: Cystectomy can be partial or complete depending on spread of tumor. Radical cystectomy is advised to remove entire bladder and lymph nodes. It also includes removal of prostate and seminal vesicles.
  3. Reconstruction ( Neo-Bladder) : Post radical cystectomy, a urinary diversion is created. Neo bladder reconstruction is done as option for urinary diversion. This is created with a piece of our intestine and called a neo-bladder. This is attached to your urethra for normal functioning. One can urinate normally. In some cases, a catheter is used periodically to drain urine.
  4. Illeal Conduit: This is another option for urinary diversion, similarly using a piece of intestine an illealcoduit( tube ) is created which runs from ones ureter and drains the kidneys to outside of body. The urine get emptied in a urostomy bag attached to stomach.
  5. Chemotherapy : Chemotherapy treatment for urinary bladder cancer requires a combination of drugs. Administration of drugs can be intravenously given or directly into the bladder as well.
  6. Immunotherapy: This is a drug treatment to help your immune system to fight bladder cancer. Immunotherapy can be administered directly into the bladder as well as intravenously. Intravenously immunotherapy might be recommended after TURBT for small bladder cancers. BCG is used in theses cases, which causes an immune system reaction which helps germ-fighting cells to bladder.

We at Diyos Hospital, have all modalities of treatment and provide the best treatment for urinary bladder cancer in Delhi, NCR by our best Urologists & Oncologists.